Stones caused by the aggregation or clumping of the crystals dissolved in the urine along with colloidal substances, which is a soluble protein in the urine as well. The stones generally occur in the kidney and are composed mainly of limestone (calcium) and other chemicals such as oxalate, uric acid, etc. The mechanism of the kidney stones built-up, at present, are still unclear. It is believed that there are many factors. For example, being in a very warm environment that the body sweat loss easier, then drink too little water, creating highly concentrated urine. Other factors such as infection in the urinary tract, structural abnormalities of the kidney, irregularities in the functioning of the parathyroid thyroid glands, etc.
In the present study, the composition of the stones has been widespread interest using Near Infrared Spectroscopy techniques which can provide information on the functional groups of chemicals in the stones, butit does notprovide the information of the structure of the atomic composition of the stones with metal components. The research project leading by Dr. Wan, SiriThepthawee from the College of Medicine and Public Health at UbonRatchathani University has used the techniques of Electronic synchrotron light with X- ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) at BL-8 laboratory SangSiam to study the composition and chemical structure of chemical element of sulfur (S) and calcium (Ca) from the sample stones collected from the hospital Sappasitthiprasong. UbonRatchathani that help to identify the types of compounds that can be found in the human kidney stones. The results of the analysis technique with XANES technique are compared that from X- ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD).
The results showed that the XANES technique can be used to determine the type of compounds of sulfur (Figure 1) and calcium (Figure 2) of the sample stones. By comparing the measured spectrum with the spectrum of standard compounds. The results obtained by XANES features are the same effect as XRPD technique. However, XANES technique has many advantages over the XRPD technique because the amount of sample used in XANES technique is less than in the XRPD.
By Dr. Werayuth Charoenruengkit
Translated from http://technologymedia.co.th/article/articleview.asp?id=372about